AT THE FRONTIER OF SPIRIT AND MATTER:
ELECTROMAGNETISM AND THE SACRED INDWELLING
Especially in the last decade increasing attention has been devoted to the role of electromagnetic phenomena play in modern life. This has been evident in a whole spectrum of scientific, technological, and medical work from quantum computing and cell interactions in living tissue, to studies of the nature of consciousness. Here the purview of electromagneticism's domain is extended by examining its relevance to our spirituality. In order to understand this relevance we need to discuss electromagnetism and the characteristics that make it special. To help us do this we must first see where electromagnetism stands in relation to the other forces of nature.
As far as we know today there are four different physical forces. One or more of them acts at every level from the microscopic to the cosmologic realm to pull things together and yet keep them separated in just such a way that we and the universe are here.
The strongest of the forces is the nuclear force, which, for example, keeps quarks together in clumps of three to form protons and neutrons, and, in turn, keeps protons and neutrons together in the nucleus of an atom. Next in order of strength, is the electromagnetic force, which will be discussed further shortly. The third is known as the weak force, which comes into play in the radioactive decay of a nucleus and many other elementary particle phenomena. By far the weakest of the four is gravity.
Just how weak gravity is compared to electromagnetism, for example, can be shown by the simple, well-known experiment of using a small magnet to lift a nail from a tabletop. The little magnet is able to do so again the gravitational attraction imposed by the whole earth.
With some idea about what the four forces are, let us see how they, and especially electromagnetism, came to be in the evolution of the universe. According to the estimates of most cosmologists, some fourteen billion years ago, give or take a billion, the universe was incredibly concentrated. At this initial stage of the universe's life all of the forces of nature are considered to have been unified as one force. While the forces were separating and doing their thing, the particles in contrast were joining together to make more complex particles in a series of successively cooler "soups." As the universe cooled, each new soup contained the more complex particles synthesized from the more elementary particles of the previous soup. After the last soup, the galaxies and stars formed, and finally on earth came life, plants, animals, and humans and their consciousness.
I would like to begin with the last soup at 300,000 years and describe electromagnetism's role in the universe's evolution from that point on. This soup occurred when the universe had expanded and cooled sufficiently to allow negatively charged electrons to attach themselves to positively charged nuclei by means of the electromagnetic force to form electrically neutral atoms. This made it possible for electromagnetic radiation (light) to move freely throughout the universe without being trapped in constant interaction with the ionized medium of electrically charged particles that characterized the previous higher temperature soups.
It is the cooled remnant of this radiation that constitutes what is called the cosmic microwave background (CMB) today. The entire universe is bathed in this very low-energy electromagnetic radiation, which is electromagnetism's first, and still present, imprint on the cosmos.
The different colors seen in the usual presentations of the CMB represent temperature variations, which in turn, reflect mass density in concentrations deduced from this background. It is now thought that by means of the gravitational force these density concentrations became seed attractors, pulling in more and more neighboring matter, ultimately resulting after billions of years in the stars and galaxies we see today. The shining of the stars is the result of the tremendous heat generated by nuclear fusion reactions, whose outward pressure balances the inward pressure of gravity. Thus, the stars and galaxies constitute the second means by which the universe is immersed in electromagnetic radiation.
After exhausting their nuclear fuel, first generation stars collapsed under the unimpeded gravitational pressure, resulting in supernova explosions that produced the heavy elements, the "stardust," of which we are made. Second and third generation stars then formed, many with planets. Our sun was one such star, and it bathed the earth with electromagnetic radiation that was vital for the evolution of life and humankind. Thus came what I see as the third stage of electromagnetism's role in the universe's evolution: the stage wherein the full range of its exquisite subtleties came into play. This stage saw the evolution of life, trees, animals, and of humans who are conscious and conscious of being conscious.
To summarize, nature's four forces working in conjunction made it possible for the universe after the first three hundred thousand years of its life to become transparent and for electromagnetism to make its first enduring mark by immersing the universe in primordial light, the cosmic microwave background. In the eons that followed, the four forces again joined to form the galaxies and stars, whose light constituted electromagnetism's second signature by gracing the universe with billions and billions of "points" of light. Finally, in the third stage involving the evolution of life, of humans, and of consciousness on this earth (and perhaps on planets of other stars), electromagnetism pursued its own separate path and fulfilled its awesome potential virtually independent of the relatively passive role played by the other three forces (Fagg 1999, 125).
It is this realm of earthly nature energized by a host of underlying electromagnetic phenomena that I now want to look at, and I want to start by giving a little historical background. It has always been the mission of physicists to be able to describe and predict the behavior of as large a range of physical phenomena as possible with as little mathematics as possible. That is, they are always striving for an "economy of equations." In particular there have been continuing attempts to unify some or all of the four forces into one theory so that one set of equations describes all phenomena instead of a set for each force. Attempts to formulate what is termed a Theory of Everything are frequently discussed in the popular literature. It is well known that Einstein tried unsuccessfully to unify electromagnetism and gravity for a major part of his life.
But the first major unification of this kind was accomplished by James Clerk Maxwell in his "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism" in 1873. With a set of equations of elegant simplicity and symmetry he was able to give a unified description of the electric and magnetic forces. Maxwell thus showed that electricity and magnetism were simply aspects of one force, electromagnetism.
One of the most important results of Maxwell's work was that the electromagnetic radiation predicted by the theory turned out to propagate at a speed about equal to the speed of light as experimentally measured at the time. It was soon realized that the whole spectrum of radiations, radio waves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays were all electromagnetic radiations moving at the speed of light. So that the word "light" has now become a common generic label for all electromagnetic radiations, especially among physicists. Some idea of the sweeping range of these radiations can be shown by inspecting a diagram showing them on a scale in powers of ten for both frequency and wavelength.
Just how intimately light can be understood as part of electromagnetism and how universal it is in a general sense was revealed in the next major refinement of electromagnetic theory. This came soon after World War II when Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, Shinichiro Tomonaga, and Freeman Dyson completed the formulation of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Their theory reconciled Maxwell's theory for electromagnetic phenomena with the universally applicable basic theories of the quantum and relativity. QED, although applicable only to electromagnetic phenomena, is the most accurate theory in all of physics, predicting numbers that agree with experiment to better than one part in ten billion.
QED showed that the electromagnetic force between electrically charged particles is carried by unobservable quantum force-transmitters. They are called virtual photons. This is in contrast to real photons (real photons being blobs of electromagnetic energy, that constitute visible light). The virtual label may seem to imply that virtual photons do not exist, but this is not so. Though they cannot be directly observed, their existence is certified by the fact that without including them, QED calculations could not yield results which are in such incredibly accurate agreement with experiments.
In part because of the accuracy of QED but also because of the wide technological application of electromagnetic theory, the electromagnetic force is known far better than the other three forces. Its effect and presence in all aspects of our life and relation to the world is ubiquitous. Electrons are constrained to orbit around the nucleus of an atom by the electromagnetic force via its virtual photons. It is the same interactive "glue" that keeps atoms together in a molecule so that all of chemistry and biology at root operate via the electromagnetic interaction, thus making it possible for bacteria, which are the smallest living cells, to exhibit the purposeful mobility, coherent collective action, and remarkable sophistication they do in their growth and survival. At the other end of the biological hierarchy we ourselves, and all our organs, are run by this mechanism, from the interactions of blood cells to the activity of neurons in the brain. So that our most intimate interaction with matter, and the means by which consciousness interacts with matter, is via the electromagnetic interaction.
Thus, the ability of your eyes to see a tree and for your brain to process and interpret their content is based on a host of underlying quantum electrodynamic events. The capacity of resonating strings to yield the soaring strains of Brahms's Violin Concerto, for the sound to travel to your ears, for your ears to process the sensations, for your brain to respond to the music--all depend directly or indirectly on the electromagnetic interaction.
It is the same interaction with its photonic "glue" that governs the incessant interplay of the molecules in air and water that collectively unite their motion to give us sound and ocean surf. While it is gravity that keeps us, all earthly objects, and the atmosphere attached to the Earth, it is the electromagnetic force with its mediating photons binding the atoms and molecules tightly together that yields the vibrant stasis of solid objects. So that it is a prime factor, along with certain quantum effects, in keeping the table lamp from falling through the table, and the table from falling through the floor.
It is this force that makes possible all modern communication: telephone, radio, TV, satellite, etc. Furthermore, whether we are examining the microscopic realm of elementary particles with gigantic particle accelerators or probing the heavens with giant telescopes, in either case the knowledge we gain is mediated by the electromagnetic interaction. Virtually all experimental studies of the other three forces, whether in the microscopic or the cosmologic realm, are conducted through an electromagnetic "sensor." This, of course, includes the operation of all the computers and complex electronic instruments that store and analyze the data, and that make calculations based on the data.
However, perhaps the most relevant feature of electromagnetism is the host of very low energy, electromagnetic events that make possible the life of humans and their consciousness. The extreme subtlety of these events is quantified in experiments in microbiology which show that voltage gradients as low as one ten millionth of a volt/cm and frequencies between 0 and 100 cycles/sec are involved in the interaction between cells in living creatures. All plant and animal life is bathed in, and interacts with, a sea of such very low frequency radiation that envelopes the Earth. This is independent, independent of the radiation superimposed by technology (Adey 1993).
The universality of this radiation and the incredibly sensitive and subtle electrodynamic interactions that are involved in its generation elicits what for me, as a physicist, is the most challenging question. How is it that four simple properties of electromagnetic radiation can combine with such minute sensitivity to physically underlie our consciousness? Let me be more specific.
There is an inexhaustible variety available in the continuous ranges of these four basic properties of electromagnetic radiation: amplitude or intensity, frequency, phase (providing the capacity of electromagnetic waves to mutually reinforce or cancel), and polarization (exemplified by the light that passes through your polarized sun glasses). These properties not only characterize visible or detectable radiation, but also the unobservable photons (virtual photons) that quantum electrodynamics tells us transmits the electromagnetic force, the same force that is the undergirding physical mechanism keeping our hearts throbbing and energizing the brain to make possible the unceasing chain of thoughts that fill our consciousness.
How these properties, these electromagnetic tools, can be orchestrated to provide the physical basis for the incredible richness of life and human consciousness on this earth is to me the most awe-provoking question. As a physicist I can understand how two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom can combine to form a water molecule, and how water molecules can agglomerate to create the exquisite hexagonal symmetry of a snow flake. But understanding the principles of the marvelous organizing action that utilizes innumerable quantum electrodynamic agents to fashion the creatures of this earth and physically underlie our consciousness, I believe, is a challenge that will be with us far into the indefinite future.
An equally impressive manifestation of electromagnetism's universality is the role that its radiation (light) and its speed play in our understanding of the structure of space-time and the nature of the cosmos. Although the 300 million meter/second speed of light is extremely fast, it is not infinite. Light's finite and measurable speed sets the pace at which we learn about the behavior of the cosmos. Some of the farthest galaxies are estimated to be some 13 billion light years away. (A light year is the distance traveled by light in one year.) This means that the light arriving at the astronomers' telescopes now allows them to see the galaxies as they were 13 billion years ago. So the farther away a galaxy is, the further back in time is our observation. The history of the entire physical universe is spread out before our eyes, and it is electromagnetic radiation that tells the story.
Obviously I could go on indefinitely giving examples of how universal electromagnetism and its radiation are in our internal and external experience. For no other phenomenon of physical nature so totally and intimately permeates and affects our lives and our world, providing the means by which humans can in turn sense the inner presence of the sacred in all of earthly nature.
For example, one part of nature, light (which, again, is electromagnetic radiation) has served as a primary medium for the spirituality of men and women since the dawn of human consciousness. It has been an essential component in the creation myths of a variety of different cultures throughout the world. These include not only the biblical creation accounts, but also creation myths of the Navaho and Zuni in the Southwest United States, the Polynesians, and the Egyptians, to name a few.
Besides being among the first emergents of the creative act in such cosmologies, light subsequently figures prominently in characterizing the nature of God's, or a deity's, posture with respect to humankind. Scriptures of religions worldwide are replete with the use of light to symbolize God's provident and salvational relation to men and women. As is well known, the Bible contains many such examples, particularly in Isaiah and the Psalms of the Old Testament and John's Gospel in the New Testament.
In Sura 57 of the Quran light proceeds ahead for believers and is provided by God so that believers may walk straight. In the Bhagavad Gita, the scriptural jewel of Hinduism, we read "I behold thee...as a mass of light shining everywhere with the radiance of flaming fire and the sun."
In many of the spiritual paths traveled by the Christian mystics light has been a major feature in the visions they have experienced. For example, St. Theresa of Avila speaks of "a light which knows no night" and Mechthild of Magdeburg: "The flowing light of the godhead." Jesus, Christian saints, and the Buddha are pictured with a halo of light surrounding their heads. Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus was accompanied by a blinding light. Many of those who have had a near death experience report finding themselves at the final stage of the episode in the presence of a "being of light," that exudes unquestioned warmth and love and requires unequivocally honest response (Moody 1976).
The quiet, calm glow of a small candle has been a spiritual symbol for men and women for millennia. Such use of candles to symbolize the spirituality expressed in rituals is found in religions throughout the world.
Furthermore the reference to light as a symbol or metaphor is voluminous in the writings of theologians and religious scholars worldwide. But each of them, among many others, saw in the spiritually directed use of light a clear distinction between the worldly light that god created and the uncreated Light that characterizes God.
So whatever God there may be has provided the photon of electromagnetic radiation, as a very early feature of creation, as an indispensable ingredient of our daily lives, as a means of communication for all humankind, and as an intimation of divine presence.
However, complementing the role that light plays is the role played by the non-visible properties of electromagnetism. Again, it is the electromagnetic interaction that activates all of the biological and chemical operations that give life to earthly nature. It is this life, this muted dynamism, that those with the reverence for nature see has having a spiritual, indwelling aspect. Literature worldwide abounds with rich descriptions of the unqualified spiritual sense of a divine presence in surrounding nature. This sense has been cogently expressed by such Christian mystics as William Blake, Jacob Boehme, St. Rose of Lima, and, of course, St. Francis Assisi. For him all creatures were brothers and sisters; brother sun - sister moon; brother wind and sister water. St. Rose saw in the sway of the flowers, rustling of the trees, the trill of the birds, and the hum of the insects, a symphony that joined her in the praise of God. The eminent scholar of mysticism, E. Underhill, writes: "The flowery garden of the world is the veritable clothing of God" (Underhill 1961, 191).
In the East the vibrant presence that inheres in nature especially characterizes the Toaist, Shinto, and some Buddhist traditions. For example, in Taoism the Tao is the mysterious quiet that pervades the natural world; and in Shinto anything from a specially located rock to a tree can possess a spirit, called kami.
In this century there are religious thinkers whose philosophic approach to the phenomena of the natural world implies a spiritual indwelling and the influence of God. Leading among these are Alfred North Whitehead and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Whitehead saw the natural world proceeding by means of irreducible events or elements of experience called "actual occasions," which can be influenced, but not determined, by God. Teilhard speaks of the "within of things" characterizing all of nature.
But the immanence in nature expressed by all of these sources, East or West, finds its most proximate physical undergirding in the electromagnetic field. This is essentially the reason I see this field as a meaningful physical analogy to God's or some divinity's indwelling.
In suggesting this I needed to be reminded of what analogy is. Webster's dictionary gives as its primary definition: "A similarity or likeness between things in some circumstances or effects, when the things are other-wise entirely different." Thus the similarities and differences between any two given things can vary to almost any degree. In other words, two things may have just one similarity but a host of differences and vice versa. Analogies through the use of metaphors, similes, etc. are incessant in our conversation, writing, and daily lives. In our train of free associative thoughts, during the day, the trigger for the next thought is almost always an analogy, however seemingly trivial.
In attempts to describe the nature of God as Creator, for example, in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition, metaphorical analogies have been used for centuries. God has been called a watchmaker who wound up the universe and started it ticking; a playwright, with us the inept actors; a painter who, with the splash of a brush, produced nature's florid display.
Of course, the most serious problem in using such analogies is the awesome unbridgeable gap between the perfection and transfiniteness of God and the finiteness of us and the world. An analogy is only an analogy; it is not the real thing being analogized. And in the case of using part or all of finite creation as an analogy to some aspect of God, it is very far from the real thing. Nevertheless, despite the gap between us and God I believe a case can be made for the use of analogy in formulating meaningful references to God.
Analogy is one powerful means to help us understand something about God. Analogy helps connect us to God. Analogy helps us place ourselves in a properly realistic perspective with respect to God as the ideal, and thus places us and nature in a conceptually reasonable relation to God, by being both not only separate and different but also linked to God as derivative creatures bearing the signs of the creator.
One primal way that we are able to feel linked to God's being is by our awareness of some sense of that being in us and nature, that is, God's indwelling or immanence. But wherever that indwelling can be perceived on this Earth, it is electromagnetism that provides its physical grounding. While it is true that any analogy involves both similarities and differences and is by definition an incomplete comparison, especially in reference to God, I reason that one of the most complete of the "incompletes" is the electromagnetic field, specifically with respect to God's indwelling (Fagg 1999, 104).
This hypothesis is based on essentially on how this interaction can be seen to be analogous to divine immanence. First, they both share in the property of ubiquity, both are all pervasive in our world. Second, they have analogous ranges of intensity from the most subtle and sensitive natural phenomena and human experiences to the most powerful and awesome. Third, they are analogous because light is so often used as a sign or symbol for God's inner presence. But light is electromagnetic radiation. Just as God's light extends far beyond what we can see, so analogously the electromagnetic spectrum extends far beyond what is visible. Fourth, just as there is beauty in a spiritual experience or insight, so also there is beauty in physical nature and the elegance of the electromagnetic equations that describe the depths of that nature.
One area of study where the notion of analogy has been used is in the evolution of life. Especially in recent years evolution has been a major subject of discussion in the science-religion dialogue. In virtually all of this dialogue the science referred to have understandably been the biological sciences, e.g., biology, neurophysiology, zoology, etc.
However, I suggest that the landscape for this dialectic study could be significantly broadened and enriched by seriously considering the physics that has been involved in life's evolution. In particular, perhaps it is timely to ponder what it might mean that electromagnetic interactions underlie and activate all of the phenomena studied by the biological disciplines.
Life's entire evolutionary process from the assembly of molecules to form first, a bacteria cells, then the host of plant and animal species, and finally humans and their consciousness has occurred through the utilization of electromagnetic phenomena. In each case the breakthrough to a greater level of complexity was carried out as the result of the incessant probing and testing with a multitude of exquisitely sensitive tools, "electrodynamic photon messengers," effecting the interaction among molecules and cells. These photons restlessly and unremittingly serve as agents in the experimentation and search for a higher level of ordered complexity or organization.
Thus at virtually every level of complexity in our natural world as it is today, from the most primitive and static to the most intricate and animated, where the theologian, spiritualist, or mystic can conceive of sacred indwelling to occur, the electromagnetic interaction is there to provide a dynamic physical grounding. The ceaseless electrodynamic interplay of molecules or organisms at each level goes hand in hand with God's or a divinity's presence there, and serves in a kind of rough one-to-one correspondence as a physical analogue for that presence.
I believe furthermore that it is of direct supplementary relevance that virtually all of modern technology also depends on the electromagnetic force for its operation. This is so from the alignment and synchronization of electromagnetic waves to form a laser beam for eye surgery to the massive motor generators furnishing electric power to our homes. In a real sense this technology, with our constant interaction with it and our dependence on it, can be seen as a vital and intimate adjunct to our continued evolution. This is evident considering, for example, the growing proximate interaction we have with computers, cell phones, robotic devices, etc. Indeed, it is so if only because our very survival as a species may depend on the technology we develop to combat the increasing number of diseases that are resistant to antibiotics, or to launch a rocket that can prod an asteroid out of its earth-destroying trajectory.
But for those engaged in the science-religion dialogue, I suggest that the essential idea to contemplate is that just as we have used these electromagnetic "tools" to create almost all of the technology we enjoy today, so did God, with infinitely more dexterity and subtlety, use them to create us.
However, in all that I have said I must emphasize that God is not light or electromagnetism, and electromagnetism is not divine immanence or indwelling. But it is the primal physical mechanism serving as an analogue for us to have access to that indwelling. I believe it awaits appreciation as such by any theology that seeks to understand God's, or a deity's, relation to us and the natural world.
In particular I believe that this is true of what in the science-religion community is called a theology of nature, which interprets the role of nature in a traditional theology based on divine revelation and spiritual insight. But it is also true of what is known in the community as natural theology, which seeks for intimations of, or pointers to, God in the beauty and order of nature. Of course, the two sound the same, but they are not. A theology of nature starts with God and interprets nature, a top-down theology. Natural theology starts with nature and seeks God, a bottom-up theology.
But regardless of which theology is being considered, I believe that what I say here is a refreshing approach. That is, instead of dealing in broad generalities that perforce characterize much of the science-religion dialogue, I am discussing a specific part of nature, electromagnetism, and associating it with a specific attribute of God, sacred indwelling, or immanence. On the other hand since electromagnetic phenomena underlie so much of the nature that is discussed in this dialogue, it provides a unifying an cohesive influence in the pursuit of either of the two theologies.
There is one theological issue that I believe can be informed by thoughtful reflection on electromagnetism's ubiquity. While it is indeed true that electromagnetism provides the physical underpinning for all of the diversity and fecundity we see in the beauty of earthly nature, it is equally true that it is the underlying physical basis for the dangerous aspects of nature. Electromagnetism is completely neutral on this issue. Thus sharks, tornadoes, earthquakes, poison ivy, and the AIDS virus all at root are also energized by electrodynamic interactions. The beautiful and the dangerous live side by side and at times even coalesce: the rings of the poisonous coral snake are quite strikingly colorful, the graceful undulations of a swimming shark are equally impressive; the uniform symmetry of a tornado likewise reveals its own awesome beauty.
If there is a creating God, the fact that this creature, this electromagnetism, was made to physically underlie both the beautiful and benign as well as the ugly and dangerous colors my view of what constitutes evil. In particular, I believe that electromagnetism's neutrality with respect to the "good and bad" things in nature may suggest a qualification and refinement of what has been called natural evil. That is, what some people see as evil arising from natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and tornadoes. This is in contrast to moral evil, primarily associated with human behavior. Perhaps, for example, at the very least these phenomena such as earthquakes and hurricanes, although extremely dangerous, might be considered for exclusion from the realm of natural evil. This, of course, depends on whether one considers as evil anything that causes suffering, or whether suffering is accepted as part of human living, and evil is restricted to a deliberate, directed malintent toward a creature or group of creatures. In any case electromagnetism's neutrality with respect to the "good and bad features of nature might be looked upon as a manifestation of natural creation's God-given freedom (Fagg 2002).
Nevertheless, despite the problem of evil, esthetics is an important aspect of theology and it seems that theologians these days rarely consider the beauty and esthetics of some of the concepts they are pondering. Beauty finds its fullest expression and consummation in the spiritual realm. In the words of philosopher Georg Friedrich Hegel: "Beauty is merely the spiritual making itself known sensuously." Ineffable beauty is the signature that inspires the mystics on their paths to alignment with God or Reality, because for the mystic, according to Evelyn Underhill, "beauty is simply Reality seen with the eyes of love." This is also true of religious scriptures. There is beauty in the righteousness and charity of the Bible, the power and justice of the Koran, the gentle wisdom of the Tao te Ching, and the transcendent insights of the Hindu Upanishads and Puranas.
Spiritual and religious beauty has its physical counterpart in the nature that theoretical physicists continuously try to describe with ever-increasing accuracy. Many theoretical physicists throughout their careers have expressed how they have been guided by the criteria of beauty and simplicity in their work. The physical laws they have formulated find much of their beauty in the symmetries they exhibit. This underlying symmetry at the quantum level becomes ultimately reflected, for example, the beautiful symmetry of a maple leaf, the hexagonal symmetry of snow flakes, and the symmetry of the human body.
So fundamental symmetries characterize the electromagnetic interactions in all of space that help in arranging matter to yield the awesome spectacles we see in the material world. But this world is far less material than it appears.
The living creatures of the world, including us, are carbon-based species. So let us consider the carbon atom. 99.99% of its mass is concentrated in the nucleus at its center, which occupies roughly one trillionth of its volume. The rest of the volume is occupied by six electrons (of very low mass) and trillions of virtual photons transmitting the electromagnetic force that keeps the electrons in their orbits.
Thus, there is a vast array of electrodynamic phenomena that fills the overwhelming majority of the world's space, so that we ourselves are in a very real sense immersed in an ocean of electromagnetic events; indeed we are part of the ocean. This helps me see electromagnetism as constituting the furthest frontier of the material realm probing with its sensitive tendrils into the unknown gap between that realm and the realm of the conscious and spiritual. Thus, it plays an unique role in our unending search for a fuller cohesion of the whole continuum of existence from the material to the conscious and spiritual (Fagg 1999, 130).
Adey, R. 1993. "Whispering between Cells: Electromagnetic Fields and Regulatory Mechanisms in Tissue" in "Frontier Perspectives: Journal of the Center for Frontier Sciences" 3(2):21-25.
Fagg, L. W. 1999. "Electromagnetism and the Sacred: at the Frontier of Spiritual Matter." New York: Continuum.
Fagg, L. W. 2002. "The Electromagnetic Undercurrent and Sacred Indwelling in Nature" in "Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science" 47(2):473-490.
Moody, R. A. 1976. "Life after Life." New York: Bantam.
Underhill, E. 1961. "Mysticism." New York: E. P. Dutton.